SPANGLER SCIENCE

LIVING & NON LIVING

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LIVING/NONLIVING Notes:
Abiotic- non-living factors in the environment. 

                Influence what can live in an area.

ie: water, light, air temperature, wind, soil, rocks 


Biotic- living or once-living (dead) organism in the environment.

ie: plants, animals, humans, bacteria


Characteristics of Living things-

1. Made of Cells- membrane covered structure which contains all material necessary for life.

*unicellular- one cell (bacteria)

*multicellular- many cells (plants & animals)

-can have specialized functions

2. Respond- sense change (stimulus) and respond.

*stimuli that affect: chemicals, gravity, degree of light & dark, sound or taste,

*Homeostasis- stable internal environment

(hot-sweat, cold-shiver)

3.  Have DNA- molecule (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid)

Provide instructions for making molecules called proteins (cell activity)

*Heredity- copies of DNA passed on from parent(s).

4. Use Energy- chemical activities of life. 

*metabolism- all chemical activities that it performs

a) ingestion- living things must take in food or produce their own.

b) digestion- break down food to use for energy.

c) respiration- ability to take in oxygen to breath.

d) excretion- to get rid of extra food not used (waste)

5. Grows and Develops- during periods of life 

*single cell- grow in size of cell

*multi cells- grow in number of cells; also develop and change (stages)

*length of lifespan; human-76yrs, fly-2 days, bristlecone pine tree-5,500yrs.

6. Reproduce- make similar organisms

a) asexual- single parent produce identical offspring.

b) sexual- two parents produce offspring. Offspring will share characteristics of parents.


Necessities of Life:

1. AIR- mixture of different gases

oxygen for respiration (energy from food)

carbon dioxide for photosynthesis (converts energy)

2. WATER- involved in chemical reactions

almost all cells are about 70% water

3. SHELTER- PLACE TO LIVE; space which contains 

all that is needed to survive

some organisms compete for space

4. FOOD- provide ENERGY and raw material to grow 

                                   and carry on life processes

a)Producers- produce own food; use sun for energy

b)Consumers- eat other organisms

c)Decomposers- break down nutrients from dead organisms or animal waste.

Characteristics of Living Things (Organisms)

Theory’s:

BIOGENES- theory that states living things come from living things.

Francisco Redi’s experiment proved this by an experiment of meat and bugs, covering the containers of meat differently.


SPONTANEOUS GENERATION- theory that states living things come from non-living things. This theory was proven wrong by above.


Grouping of Living Things:


Organism- living unit. anything that can live on its own. 


Population- group of individuals (organisms) of the same species (type) that live together at the same time in the same area (space)


Community- all the different populations that live and interact in the same area.


Ecosystem- the community of organisms with the non-living environment.



SCIENTIFIC METHOD Notes:

Scientific method- series of steps to solve a problem or answer a question in science

Steps: problem, hypothesis, test, analyze, conclusion and share info.


Hypothesis- educated guess

prediction that can be tested

possible explanation


Variable- factors that can change,

alter  or effect outcome


Theory- well-tested idea that’s been confirmed

explanation for several hypotheses

supported by testing

ie: gravity


  

 

W.T. EICH MIDDLE SCHOOL