PASSIVE TRANSPORTATION: Movement of particles from a high concentration
to a low concentration through proteins at the cell membrane.
energy is needed.
riding a bike down a hill
DIFFUSION: Movement of small particles (molecules) from a high concentration to a low concentration. When in a cell it is through proteins.
No energy is needed.
air spray moving from close area to all around the room, or
OSMOSIS: Diffusion of water from a high concentration to a low
concentration through a selectively permeable membrane like
the cell membrane. Pure water is the highest concentration. Pure water will always move to lower levels of concentration until
the areas are of equal concentration.
No energy is needed.
Example: A glass of water of pure water and a wilted flower.
TRANSPORTATION: Diffusion of particles from a low concentration to a high concentration
through a protein within the membrane. Movement of large molecules
and minerals with the help of transport proteins; examples: calcium,
potassium, and sodium.
Energy is required and used (ATP)
Example: riding a bike uphill
water and oxygen through the membrane. Other small particles must go through passive or active transportation.
* The cell membrane is selectively permeable so that some substances can pass through (A gatekeeper)
*Molecules are always moving and bump int each other.
The movement of large particles into the cell. The cell surrounds and encloses
the particle within it. A vesicle is created to then transport the particle
within the cell.
EXOCYTOSIS: Vessicles are formed to carry large particles to
the cell membrane to leave the cell.
Most energy comes from the sun
PHOTOSYNTHESIS: “made by light” Plants capture light energy
and make food.
eat plants and other organisms that have eaten plants.
Plants use the sun energy to change Carbod Dioxide and Water to food,
in the form of glucose. Some of the food is stored and some
is released with oxygen.
Plants are producers since they make their own food.
Organelle used: chloroplast
+ H2O + Light = Glucose + O2
RESPIRATION: The break down of food that we eat to get the energy that our
cells can use. Oxygen is needed for the process to occur. The break down of
foods gives us energy, some in the form of heat to keep our homeostasis.
Consumers use cellular respiration. This process
is called aerobic.
+ O2 = CO2 + H2O + Energy (ATP)
FERMENTATION: Fermentation occurs in the
animal and plant cells but in different ways. In animal cells,
after the Oxygen supply is depleted or hard to get fermentation
occurs. This process is the partial breakdown of glucose to get small
amounts of ATP. This process is called anaerobic since it is without oxygen.
The product we get is lactic acid and ATP.
Glucose = lactic acid + ATP