SPANGLER SCIENCE

Nervous System Notes

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FUNCTION: Reacts to the environment.

Get and interpret information about the body's internal and external environment, then responds.

Helps maintain homeostasis.

Stimulus and Response.

Telephone communication system.



STRUCTURE:

CNS: Central Nervous System. Includes brain (control center) & spinal cord.

PNS: Periphal Nervous System. Nerves of the body, neuron transmitters.

Go to the CNS.

43 pairs; 12 cranial and 32 spinal nerves.


        Autonomic- involuntary system. Works the organs and glands.

                        Sympathetic- speed up

                        Parasympathetic- slow down


        Somatic- voluntary system. Works the peripheral muscles.


        Sensory:carries messages to the brain  for a decision.

                        Gets the info from sense organs (eyes, nose, ears, tongue and skin).


        Motor: carries messages from brain and spinal cord to the muscle or gland.

                   * association - connects the sensory and motor neurons together in the brain and spinal cord.



    MAKE-UP:

            Neurons: nerve cell

            Dendries: many thread-like fibers that bring messages into the cell.

            Axon: one large fiber that sends messages away from the cell body to the next 

                      cell.

            Synapse: space where messages crosss over from one cell to the next.

            Myalin Sheath: surrounds axon for protection and insulation.

                        with Myalin sheath messages go quicker than without.




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PARTS OF THE BRAIN:

            CEREBRUM: biggest part of the brain.

                            thinking and reasoning, interpreting, memory, learning,

                            sensory (5 senses), and controls the skeletal muscle.

                            Two halves- hemispheres

            CEREBELLUM: lower back section  of the brain.

                            Motor skills- move on command

                            Controls muscle coordination and balance


             BRAIN STEM: Medulla Oblongata- connects the brain to the spinal cord.

                             regulates all the involuntary functions, breathing,  heartbeat, &

                             digestion.


PROTECTION:

                the CNS is protected bt bone, skull and vertebrae.


DAMAGE:

                Concusion- bruise the brain, injureed tissue.

                Spinal cord injury- cut or crushed nerves.

                            Anything below is a loss of movement, paralysis.


*Knee Jerk Response- tapping of the knee to see if reflexes are working.

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W.T. Eich Intermediate