SPANGLER SCIENCE

Endocrine System
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Class Notes

  Function: Controls body functions through chemical release from glands.

                   Long-term processes (growth, sexual development, fluid balance)

        *Nervous System: acts instantly while Endocrine System more generally and slowly.

Homeostasis: balance maintained by the amount of hormones secreted and then stopped.

                    feedback mechanism.


Make-up:

    Hormones: chemical produced by glands.

                    released into bloodstream to get to where it is needed, delivered.

                    chemical message tells specific cells what to do.

                    helps ith homeostasis.


    Glands: Group of cells that make a special chemical for the body.

            Pituitary Gland- the "master gland"

                attached to the hypothalamus in brain.

                secretes hormones- stimulates other glands.

                regulates amount of hormone discharge.

                growth and retention of water.

            Pineal Gland- also in brain.

                onset of puberty.

            Thyroid gland- around the trachea.

                increases rate of energy use, metabolism.

                growth and development.

                      hormone: thyroxin

               Parathyroid gland- attatched to the thyroid.

                regulates calcium level in the blood.

                activates vitamin D.

                hormone: parathormone

            Thymus gland- in the chest cavity

                regulates the immune system, lymphocytes.

                maturation of w.b.c. - to fight disease.

                hormone: thymosin

            Adrenal glands- just above the kidneys.

                help with stress and danger

                fight or flight mechanism.

                hormone: epinephrine (used to be adrenalin)

            Pancreas- located by the stomach.

                regulates blood sugar levels.

                hormone: insulin

                common disease: diabetes.

            Ovaries: female secondary sexual characteristics & menstration.

                hormone: estrogen

            Testes: male secondary sexual characteristics.

                hormone: testosterone

HYPOTHALAMUS- within the brain.

            connects the nervous system with the endocrine system.

            produces both hormones and nerve impulses.

            works with the pituitary gland.






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