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Class Notes:

PASSIVE TRANSPORTATION: Movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration through proteins at the cell membrane.

No energy is needed.

Example: riding a bike down a hill

DIFFUSION: Movement of small particles (molecules) from a high concentration to a low concentration. When in a cell it is through proteins.

No energy is needed.

Example: air spray moving from close area to all around the room, or

bumper cars.

OSMOSIS: Diffusion of water from a high concentration to a low concentration through a selectively permeable membrane like the cell membrane. Pure water is the highest concentration. Pure  water  will always move to lower levels of concentration until the areas  are of  equal concentration.

No energy is needed.

Example: A glass of water of pure water and a wilted flower.

ACTIVE TRANSPORTATION: Diffusion of particles from a low concentration to a high concentration through a protein within the membrane. Movement of large molecules and minerals with the help of transport proteins; examples: calcium, potassium, and sodium.

Energy is required and used (ATP)

Example: riding a bike uphill

*Cells allow water and oxygen through the membrane. Other small particles must go through passive or active transportation.

* The cell membrane is selectively permeable so that some substances can pass through (A gatekeeper)

*Molecules are always moving and bump int each other.

ENDOCYTOSIS: The movement of large particles into the cell. The cell surrounds and encloses the particle within it. A vesicle is created to then transport the particle within the cell.

Example: Pac man

EXOCYTOSIS: Vessicles are formed to carry large particles to the cell membrane to leave the cell.

Example: Sweat

* Most energy comes from the sun

PHOTOSYNTHESIS: “made by light” Plants capture light energy and make food. 

We eat plants and other organisms that have eaten plants. 

Plants use the sun energy to change Carbod Dioxide and Water to food, in the form of glucose. Some of the food is stored and some is released with oxygen.

Plants are producers since they make their own food.

Organelle used: chloroplast

CO2 + H2O + Light = Glucose + O2

CELLULAR RESPIRATION: The break down of food that we eat to get the energy that our cells can use.  Oxygen is needed for the process to occur. The break down of foods gives us energy, some in the form of heat to keep our homeostasis.

Consumers use cellular respiration. This process is called aerobic.

Organelle used: mitochondria

Glucose + O2 = CO2 + H2O + Energy (ATP)

FERMENTATION:  Fermentation occurs in the animal and plant cells but in different ways. In animal cells, after the Oxygen supply is depleted or hard to get fermentation occurs. This process is the partial breakdown of glucose to get small amounts of ATP. This process is called anaerobic since it is without oxygen. The product we get is lactic acid and ATP.

Glucose = lactic acid + ATP

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