PASSIVE TRANSPORTATION: Movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration through proteins at the cell membrane.
No energy is needed.
riding a bike down a hill
DIFFUSION: Movement of small
particles (molecules) from a high concentration to a low concentration.
When in a cell it is through proteins.
Example: air spray moving from close
area to all around the room, or
OSMOSIS: Diffusion of water from
a high concentration to a low concentration through a selectively
permeable membrane like the cell membrane. Pure water is the highest concentration. Pure water will always move to lower levels of
concentration until the areas are of equal concentration.
No energy is needed.
glass of water of pure water and a wilted flower.
ACTIVE TRANSPORTATION: Diffusion of particles from a low concentration to a high concentration through a protein within the membrane. Movement of large molecules and minerals with the help of transport proteins; examples: calcium, potassium, and sodium.
is required and used (ATP)
Example: riding a
*Cells allow water and oxygen
through the membrane. Other small particles must go through passive or active transportation.
* The cell membrane is selectively permeable so that some substances can pass through (A gatekeeper)
*Molecules are always moving and bump int each other.
ENDOCYTOSIS: The movement of large particles into the cell. The cell surrounds and encloses the particle within it. A vesicle is created to then transport
the particle within the cell.
Example: Pac man
are formed to carry large particles to the cell membrane to leave
* Most energy comes from the sun
PHOTOSYNTHESIS: “made by light” Plants capture light energy and make food.
We eat plants and other organisms that have eaten plants.
Plants use the sun energy to change Carbod Dioxide and Water to food, in the form of glucose. Some of the food is stored and some is released with oxygen.
Plants are producers since they make their own food.
Organelle used: chloroplast
CO2 + H2O + Light = Glucose + O2
CELLULAR RESPIRATION: The break down of food that we eat to get the energy that our cells can use. Oxygen is needed for the process to occur.
The break down of foods gives us energy, some in the form
of heat to keep our homeostasis.
cellular respiration. This process is called aerobic.
Organelle used: mitochondria
+ O2 = CO2 + H2O + Energy (ATP)
FERMENTATION: Fermentation occurs in the animal
and plant cells but in different ways. In animal cells, after
the Oxygen supply is depleted or hard to get fermentation
occurs. This process is the partial breakdown of glucose to get small
amounts of ATP. This process is called anaerobic since it is without oxygen. The product we get is lactic acid and ATP.
Glucose = lactic acid + ATP